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  • A

    Viagra use could reduce Alzheimer ?

    By admin

    study-finds-viagra-usage-could-reduce-alzheimers-disease-risk_resize_md.jpg A recently published study from researchers at the Cleveland Clinic has found that sildenafil, an approved drug for erectile dysfunction, popularly known as Viagra, can help in treating Alzheimer's disease.

    The neurodegenerative disease that currently does not have a cure is estimated to impact 13.8 million Americans by 2050, the press release said. With new drug development being a time and cost-intensive process, researchers in the pharma industry have turned to repurpose already approved drugs. The team led by Feixiong Cheng, at Genomic Medicine Institute at Cleveland, was studying subtypes of neurodegenerative diseases to find common mechanisms that could be targeted with FDA-approved drugs.

    In the case of Alzheimer's disease, two proteins, namely beta-amyloid and tau, begin accumulating inside the brain, leading to clots and tangles. Clinical trials targeting these proteins have failed in the past decade, the press release said. Recent research has also shown that the two proteins that work together cause the disease. The researchers began investigating which of the approved drugs could act on both the proteins at the same time instead of targeting just one.

    To their surprise, sildenafil turned up to have the best scores. The database that the researchers used consisted of data of more than seven million people in the U.S. and even included drugs such as losartan or metformin, that are currently under active clinical trials to treat Alzheimer's. After six years of follow-up, sildenafil users were 69 percent less likely to develop the neurodegenerative disease, the press release said.

    "We found that sildenafil use reduced the likelihood of Alzheimer’s in individuals with coronary artery disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, all of which are comorbidities significantly associated with risk of the disease," added Dr. Cheng.

    To further verify their findings, the team created model cells of Alzheimer's disease in the lab using stem cells and treated them with sildenafil. The drug not only increased brain cell growth but also decreased hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins, a process that usually leads to tangles.

    The research team will now carry out a phase II randomized clinical trial to confirm their findings, following which the approach will be applied to other neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    "This is an example of a growing area of research in precision medicine where big data is key to connecting the dots between existing drugs and complex diseases," said Jean Yuan, M.D., Ph.D., at the National Institute on Aging (NIA), which funded the work. The study was published in Nature Aging.

    A trial for a nasal vaccine for Alzheimer's is also scheduled to begin soon.

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  • A

    What to know about latest strain of Covid

    By admin

    Screenshot_1.jpg Less than a week after the first case of the coronavirus omicron variant was confirmed in the U.S., about a third of states have now reported cases and health officials say it continues to spread rapidly across the country.

    Although early indications suggest the omicron variant may be less dangerous than the highly infectious delta variant, scientists say there is still much to learn.

    “We have really got to be careful before we make any determinations that (omicron) is less severe or it really doesn’t cause any severe illness, comparable to delta," Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation's leading infectious disease expert, told CNN's “State of the Union Sunday."

    The variant was first identified in South Africa, where it's quickly becoming the dominant strain, and was designated as a "variant of concern" by the World Health Organization.

    Here’s everything to know about omicron and why Americans should take notice.

    What is omicron?

    The World Health Organization designated the B.1.1.529 variant a “variant of concern” Nov. 26 and named it omicron after the 15th letter of the Greek alphabet.

    WHO uses the Greek alphabet as a variant classification system to simplify understanding and avoid stigmatizing countries where they’re first identified.

    Omicron, which can be pronounced both ä-mə-ˌkrän or ō-ˈmī-(ˌ)krän, according to Merriam-Webster, was first identified in South Africa on Nov. 24. The U.S. began restricting travel from South Africa and several other countries last week but Fauci said the Biden administration is considering lifting those bans.

    “Hopefully we’ll be able to lift that ban in a quite reasonable period of time,” he said. “We all feel very badly about the hardship that has been put on not only on South Africa but the other African countries.”

    Omicron:How it got its Greek name and what it means

    What are the symptoms?

    WHO says there’s no evidence to suggest that symptoms linked to omicron are different from those caused by other variants.

    Dr. Angelique Coetzee, a private practitioner and chair of South African Medical Association, was one of the first doctors in South Africa to detect the new variant.

    She told Reuters symptoms of the omicron variant were "very mild" and could be treated at home. These infections were first reported in university students who were younger and tended to have milder disease.

    But like all coronavirus variants, WHO said, omicron may be capable of causing severe disease or death, particularly among vulnerable populations.

    Symptoms of COVID-19 caused by any known coronavirus variant can include fever or chills, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, muscle or body aches, headache, sore throat, a loss of taste or smell, sore and congestion or runny nose.

    How serious is omicron?It will take weeks to understand new COVID-19 variant, experts say.

    Where is first case of omicron in the United States?

    A person in California became the first in the U.S. to have an identified case of the omicron variant, the White House announced Wednesday.

    “This is the first case of COVID-19 caused by the omicron variant detected in the United States,” Fauci said at the White House last week. He said the person was a traveler who returned from South Africa on Nov. 22 and tested positive on Nov. 29.

    On a visit to the National Institutes of Health Thursday, President Joe Biden urged Americans to get behind his plan to combat COVID-19 during the winter months, which included tighter travel rules, free at-home tests and boosters shots.

    "It's a plan that I think should unite us," Biden said. It "pulls no punches in the fight against COVID-19."

    Where else has it been detected?

    At least 16 states have reported omicron cases: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Utah, Washington and Wisconsin, according to a Reuters tally.

    The World Health Organization said Friday the latest strain has been detected in at least 38 countries, including South Africa, Portugal, Canada, Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Hong Kong, Israel, Germany, and Saudi Arabia.

    Sign up for USA TODAY's Coronavirus Watch free newsletter to receive updates directly to your inbox and join our Facebook group.

    Should I be concerned about it?

    In a media briefing last week, President Joe Biden said omicron is “a cause for concern, not a cause for panic.”

    It’s not clear whether infection with omicron causes more severe disease compared to infections with other variants, WHO said.

    It’s also unclear how well the virus evades immunity from previous infection or COVID-19 vaccines to cause a breakthrough infection.

    But even with so little information, health experts say people should be watchful.

    “Americans should take this variant seriously," Swann said. "Even if this one turns out to be not as bad as we fear, there will be another one that will.”

    President Biden:Omicron 'a cause for concern, not a cause for panic'

    Are there any deaths linked to omicron?

    As of Monday, no deaths were reported associated with the new variant.

    What makes omicron different from other variants?

    Omicron appears to have about 30 mutations in on the coronavirus’ spike protein.

    Out of the approximately 30 mutations, 26 are unique to omicron and don’t appear in other variants of concern, according to Dr. Venky Soundararajan, co-founder and chief medical officer at nference, a data analytics firm in Massachusetts.

    In comparison, the alpha variant has only four unique mutations, beta has six, gamma has eight and delta has seven.

    “I’m less concerned about the fact that these mutations exist and I’m more concerned about the fact that we know very little about many of them,” Soundararajan said.

    A handful of omicron’s mutations that exist in other variants have been associated with previous surges of positive COVID-19 cases, he said. Some of these mutations are believed to increase transmissibility while others may help the virus evade immunity.

    Most of these mutations are clustered at the ACE2 receptor and antibody binding sites, Soundararajan said, which are also sites targeted by the COVID-19 vaccines and antibodies.

    The most intriguing mutation is the ins214EPE insertion, he said. This addition introduces three new amino acids, corresponding to nine nucleotides, to the virus’s genetic profile.

    However, that doesn’t necessarily mean the insertion is more dangerous. A preprint study, not yet peer-reviewed, authored by Soundararajan shows this same insertion is present in seasonal coronaviruses.

    This could mean the virus transmits more easily, he said, but it could also mean it causes only mild or asymptomatic disease to evade detection.

    “In evolution, when you see a virus pick up a trait, it loses something else. You may see higher transmission but lower odds of hospitalization,” Soundararajan said. “That might be the silver lining.”

    How quickly could it spread?

    Scientists say more data is needed to determine severity of illness, but real-world evidence suggests omicron may be highly transmissible.

    Dutch health authorities said they detected more than 60 COVID-19 cases among 624 passengers who flew on two flights from South Africa to Amsterdam’s airport, Reuters reported, despite requiring a negative test or proof of vaccination.

    “The filtration on planes are better, there tend to be mask requirements and most airline companies are requiring a negative test, so I would not have expected this level of positivity so quickly on that flight,” Swann said. “I found it a bit worrisome.”

    Do the COVID-19 vaccines protect against omicron?

    Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation’s leading infectious disease expert, told Biden he believes “existing vaccines are likely to provide a degree of protection against severe cases of COVID,” reiterating that booster shots on top of full vaccination will provide stronger protection.

    However, other scientists say it will likely take weeks to sort out if the new variant is more infectious and if vaccines are still effective against it.

    COVID-19 vaccine developers with authorized shots in the U.S. – Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson – have all pledged to reformulate their shots to protect against omicron “if needed,” which may include an omicron-specific booster.

    “It is imperative that we are proactive as the virus evolves,” Stéphane Bancel, Chief Executive Officer of Moderna, said in a statement. “The mutations in the omicron variant are concerning and for several days, we have been moving as fast as possible to execute our strategy to address this variant.”

    What precautions should I take?

    Preliminary evidence suggests there may be an increased risk of reinfection with omicron compared to other variants of concern, according to WHO, but more information is needed.

    Biden urged the public to get fully vaccinated, and if eligible, to get a COVID-19 booster as soon as possible. Waning immunity in people who received their first shots more than six months ago may put them at risk of breakthrough infection.

    The CDC updated its guidance, recommending that all adults 18 and older should get a booster shot either six months after their initial Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine series or two months after their initial J&J vaccine.

    “If you are 18 years and over and got fully vaccinated before June 1, go get the booster shot today,” Biden said. “They’re free and available in 80,000 locations coast to coast. Do not wait.”

    Anyone who gathered with non-household members over the holiday should consider getting tested for COVID-19, Swann said. She also urged anyone who has traveled away from their community to get tested.

    “That would allow us to get a handle on things,” she said. “It will continue to spread but slow it down to give us time to know what this is and what does it mean, and be prepared for it.”

    Americans should also consider wearing masks, regardless of vaccination status, especially around people with compromised immune systems who are more at risk of severe disease, hospitalization and death from COVID-19.

    Biden also pushed parents to get their children vaccinated now that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine has been authorized for kids 5 to 11.

    “Most of our children across America are not fully vaccinated, yet,” Swann said. “People who are not fully protected with the full recommended dosage of vaccines should take extra care in gathering with anyone outside their household.”

    Contributing: Associated Press. Follow Adrianna Rodriguez on Twitter: @AdriannaUSAT.

    Health and patient safety coverage at USA TODAY is made possible in part by a grant from the Masimo Foundation for Ethics, Innovation and Competition in Healthcare. The Masimo Foundation does not provide editorial input.

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  • A

    Most people are still wearing cloth masks. Here's why that's a problem with omicron

    By admin

    img.png Your cloth face mask isn't protecting you against the coronavirus variant omicron, health officials say.
    As common as cloth face masks have become, health experts say, they do little to prevent tiny virus particles from getting into your nose or mouth and aren't effective against the new variant.
    "Cloth masks are not going to cut it with omicron," says Linsey Marr, a researcher at Virginia Tech told NPR.
    Health experts are urging the public to opt for three-ply surgical masks, KN95 masks or N95 masks, which offer more protection against the highly contagious variant.
    Omicron spreads more quickly and efficiently than other known coronavirus variants and is extremely transmissible – even through thick fabric face masks. Several countries, such as Germany and Austria, have surgical masks requirements in public.
    The latest COVID news, updates: Get the updates delivered right to your inbox
    Reviewed: Where to buy N95 masks online
    Should you be wearing an N95 mask? What to know and where to buy them online
    The latest guidance: What to do if you test positive for COVID-19 or are exposed
    So what do we need to know about which mask is most effective against omicron?
    What face mask is the most effective against COVID-19?
    N95, KN95 and KF94 respirators are made out of material with an electrostatic charge, which "actually pulls these particles in as they're floating around and prevents you from inhaling those particles," Dr. Abraar Karan, an infectious disease physician at Stanford University, told NPR.
    Researchers at Duke University conducted a study last year to see which mask was the most effective. The N95 masks were the most effective in blocking respiratory droplets – 99% to be exact. Second-best? Surgical masks.

    While being the best option for mask protection, N95s happen to be the most expensive.
    Leana Wen, an emergency physician and visiting professor of health policy and management at the George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, said surgical masks are a great, more affordable option.
    "We need to be wearing at least a three-ply surgical mask. You can wear a cloth mask on top of that, but do not just wear a cloth mask alone," Wen told CNN.
    Omicron surges in the US: US focuses on testing and booster shots as omicron variant sweeps across nation
    Why aren't cloth face masks effective as omicron spikes?
    While cloth masks can filter large droplets, N95s can filter both large droplets and the smaller aerosols that may contain the airborne virus. N95s are also especially efficient, filtering out about 95% of airborne particles.
    Infectious disease expert Steven Gordon told Cleveland Clinic that all studies show omicron is the most easily transmissible coronavirus variant, and that's why health experts urge a change in masks. Gordon added that while cloth masks help prevent the exhale of particles, it doesn't do much to prevent inhaling particles, which is a problem with omicron.
    Should N95 masks still be reserved for health care staff?
    The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention urges the public to save N95 masks for health care workers. However, it was only in the first several months of the pandemic when hospitals saw a shortage in N95 masks. Now it has "been many months since the supply of N95s (has been) an issue," Wen said.
    Should you be wearing an N95 mask? What to know and where to buy them online
    Dr. Sabrina Assoumou, an infectious disease physician at Boston Medical Center, is among experts who recommend upgraded masks: "If you're in an indoor public setting, that's where we recommend that you wear a well-fitted, high-quality mask. With omicron and how transmissible it is, I feel that we should all be moving to wearing a higher-quality, better mask."

    Some experts recommend that children wear duck-bill N95 masks for the best combination of protection and breathability.
    What are the best face masks for children? Are there N95 masks for kids?
    St. Jude Children's Research Hospital recommends children wear the white, duck-bill N95 masks because cloth masks "do not provide the same level of protection and should not be used."
    The white duck-bill N-95 mask comes in two sizes, small and regular, and is shaped outwardly like a duck's mouth. The design was created to offer more breathability.
    How to spot fake N95 or KN95 masks
    The first step is to turn to the CDC and analyze its charts of N95 and KN95 masks that the agency has tested, including the make, model number and filtration efficiency. Websites such as Fakespot help consumers weed out authentic products from counterfeits, including real and fake N95 masks.
    If you're purchasing a mask from Amazon, be wary of reviews in which people say they received the mask free, because that could persuade them to leave a positive review, The New York Times cautions. The Times also recommends purchasing masks through verified manufacturers such as DemeTech in Miami and Prestige Ameritech in Texas.
    Certain manufactures will include a barcode consumers can scan to ensure they're buying the real product. Powecom KN95 masks have a barcode that's scannable using a phone, so whether you purchase through the website or a third party, you can verify the product.
    Follow Gabriela Miranda on Twitter: @itsgabbymiranda
    bolded text

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  • T

    You've been vaccinated. So what should you do with your vaccine card?

    Screenshot_1.png More than 100 million Americans have received at least one COVID-19 vaccine shot. The proof? A 4-by-3-inch paper "vaccination record card" issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    In a post-pandemic world, that humble card for those who are fully vaccinated could become an important document used for travel, attending events, returning to the post-pandemic office and other purposes. At least a dozen colleges and universities have already announced that they'll require students to become immunized before they return to campus in the fall. Companies are currently weighing whether they will require employees and patrons to present proof of vaccination as a condition of employment or engaging in business.

    In the meantime, here's what experts say you should know about vaccination cards.

    Photograph your record card
    The first thing experts recommend once you've been vaccinated is taking a digital photograph of both sides of your personal record card. You can also scan the card and save the file on a laptop or desktop, said Megan Ranney, an emergency physician at Rhode Island Hospital and an associate professor at Brown University.

    One thing you shouldn't do: Share your personal proof of inoculation on Facebook or other social media sites, which could lead to identity theft because the CDC card includes a person's date of birth as well as first name and last name.

    "I would not post it to social media with my birthday showing. It is a unique identifier that could allow somebody to potentially steal your identity, so I would first be careful about that," epidemiologist Danielle Ompad, a professor at the NYU School of Global Public Health, told CBS MoneyWatch.

    By contrast, you may want to print a copy of the photo of the vaccination card and store it in your wallet. While some experts advise against having the original card laminated, so that booster shots of vaccine can be added if that becomes necessary, others say that's OK because a more sophisticated record-keeping system is likely to be in place by then.
    "I would laminate it because by the time a booster comes along, the technology will have evolved," suggested Dr. Maureen Miller, a professor of epidemiology at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.

    You can get your card laminated for free at office supply store Staples by using the code 81450 or at Office Depot with code 52516714.

    Leave the original at home
    Make sure to store the original hard copy of your vaccine card someplace safe — you don't need to keep it on your person at all times and risk losing it. Experts recommend keeping the original with other important documents or medical records and carrying just the digital copy.

    "It doesn't need to be carried at all times at this point, unless you're traveling or doing something else where you'll have to provide proof of vaccination," Ranney said.

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security, said he keeps his vaccination record tucked into his passport (along with a card showing he's been vaccinated against yellow fever).

    Notify your primary care doctor that you've received the vaccine, as you would with any other inoculation. This helps health care providers to ensure your record of immunizations is up to date.

    Not everyone has followed experts' advice to store vaccination records someplace secure. University of Illinois gymnast Evan Manivong recently nailed a perfect landing during a vault competition — and celebrated by pulling out his vaccine card tucked inside his leotard and flashing it to the audience. "Go get vaccinated everyone!" the 20-year-old advertising major later tweeted. Videos of the magic moment went viral this week.
    What happens if I lose it?
    If you do lose your card, don't panic. Every time a vaccine is administered, the provider records it with the state's immunization registry.

    "Those flimsy pieces of paper aren't the only record of your vaccination status," Adalja said. "People should keep the cards safe so they have them on hand, but it's not the end of the world if they lose it or if it goes through the washing machine."

    If you do misplace your card, call your state's health department and ask for a replacement.

    "Right now it's what we have as proof that you've gotten the vaccine, but it's not impossible to replace," said Dr. Christine Whelan, clinical professor of consumer science at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

    For now, Whelan said, the CDC's simple white cards may have more symbolic value than practical function.

    "Other countries aren't giving out pieces of paper like we are, and this may be a quaint thing we are doing. There is something satisfying about leaving with the card copy record just in case," she said.

    No universal standard — yet
    President Joe Biden's chief medical adviser, Dr. Anthony Fauci, this week said the U.S. government will not mandate so-called vaccine passports for travel and other business activities. Anything resembling a digital pass is likely to be developed by the private sector, he added.

    Some experts lament that the government did not develop a standardized, digital proof of vaccination earlier.
    "I think the U.S. government should have thought of a digital app early on and had it ready to go so that it activated when a person got a vaccine," Adalja said. "Now we're having to scramble to come up with a solution that's digital and secure so people don't have to worry about carrying that card around."

    Ideally, one's vaccination status would be integrated and stored with other personal travel information that's reflected in programs like Global Entry and TSA PreCheck that ease the process of traveling through airport security.

    Beware faux vax cards
    Scammers are also capitalizing on the low-tech record-keeping system. Hundreds of fraudsters are selling fake versions of the CDC-issued vaccine cards through ecommerce platforms including eBay, Etsy and Shopify, according to Saoud Khalifah, CEO of Fakespot, which uses artificial intelligence to warn consumers of online retail scams.

    The scam cards are being advertised at roughly $20 a pop, and are also offered in bulk. The fraud is brazenly out in the open. Fakespot has identified hundreds of Facebook pages and eBay listings offering "vax-cards" and "blank vaccine cards" for individuals who might not have been vaccinated yet.

    "It has introduced this new dynamic to society where people can counterfeit immunity and replace it with a fake card. It's a new concept we haven't seen before," Khalifah told CBS MoneyWatch.

    Khalifah suspects that some purchasers of the phony cards are anti-vaxxers who don't plan on becoming immunized, but still want whatever access the card affords them.

    The FBI has warned that such schemes violate federal laws prohibiting unauthorized use of an official government agency's seal, including the one for the CDC. Fraudulent use of an official federal seal constitutes a felony that carries a maximum penalty of five years in prison.

    North Carolina Attorney General Josh Stein and a group of bipartisan attorneys general this week called on the e-commerce site OfferUp to clamp down on the illegal sale of blank and forged COVID-19 vaccination record cards. This kind of fraud puts the general public's health at risk, according to Stein.

    "These cards will result in more people becoming sick by more variants of the virus and more people dying as the pandemic takes longer to get under control," he told CBS MoneyWatch. "By not getting the vaccine, it means more people will get infected with variants and that threatens everyone's health."

    Race for digital passports and other solutions
    As Fauci suggested, private companies are already developing ways for people to show they've been vaccinated or are coronavirus-free. For example, New York authorities are testing a digital health pass powered by blockchain technology in partnership with computer science company IBM.

    "The aim is to eventually provide New York residents a simple, voluntary and secure method for showing proof of a negative COVID-19 test result or certification of vaccination," IBM said in a press release last month.

    New York recently piloted the so-called Excelsior Pass with the Brooklyn Nets at one of the National Basketball Association team's home games at Barclays Center in Brooklyn, New York. It will also be tested at theaters and other venues as more New Yorkers become vaccinated.

    "The Excelsior Pass will play a critical role in getting information to venues and sites in a secure and streamlined way, allowing us to fast-track the reopening of these businesses and getting us one step closer to reaching a new normal," Governor Andrew Cuomo said in a statement last month.

    Vaccine management company VaxAtlas has also launched an app for consumers to securely store vaccination record cards.

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